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Michael B Mann, Michael A Black, Devin J Jones, Jerrold M Ward, Christopher Chin Kuan Yew, Justin Y Newberg, Adam J Dupuy, Alistair G Rust, Marcus W Bosenberg, Martin McMahon, Cristin G. Print, Neal G Copeland, and Nancy A Jenkins., Nat Genet, 2015.
A specific base mutation of the BRAF gene, called BRAF-V600E, is found in 70 percent or more of benign birthmarks and moles in humans, and has long been believed to precede the development of melanomas, even though the BRAF mutation alone does not seem to be enough to cause cancer. Using a "Sleeping Beauty” (SB) mouse model of melanoma (in which transposon insertions mimic gene mutations), this paper aimed to identify the genes and pathways that cooperate with the BRAF mutation to cause skin cancer. Of the 1,232 candidate cancer genes found to interact with BRAF in tumour development, more than 500 of these had human equivalents that either showed increased mutation rates in melanoma, or were associated with patient prognosis. In addition, the gene CEP350 was identified and validated as a new tumor-suppressor gene in human melanoma.